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English (United States), English (United Kingdom), Arabic, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Romanian, Turkish and Ukrainian,WebsiteAdobe Photoshop is a developed and published by for. It was originally created in 1988. Since then, this software has become the industry standard not only in editing, but in as a whole. The software's name has thus become a, leading to its usage as a verb (e.g. 'to photoshop an image', ', and ') although Adobe discourages such use. Photoshop can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports, and several including,.
Photoshop uses its own PSD and PSB file formats to support these features. In addition to raster graphics, this software has limited abilities to edit or render text and (especially through for the latter), as well as. Its feature set can be expanded by; programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that run inside it and offer new or enhanced features.Photoshop's naming scheme was initially based on. However, in October 2002 (following the introduction of branding), each new version of Photoshop was designated with ' CS' plus a number; e.g., the eighth major version of Photoshop was Photoshop CS and the ninth was Photoshop CS2. Photoshop CS3 through CS6 were also distributed in two different editions: Standard and Extended. With the introduction of the branding in June 2013 (and in turn, the change of the ' CS' suffix to ' CC'), Photoshop's licensing scheme was changed to that of rental model.
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Historically, Photoshop was bundled with additional software such as, and Adobe Camera RAW.Alongside Photoshop, Adobe also develops and publishes,. Adobe also plans to launch a full version of Photoshop for the in 2019. Collectively, they are branded as 'The Adobe Photoshop Family'.
Contents.Early history Photoshop was developed in 1987 by two brothers and, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1988. Thomas Knoll, a Ph.D. Student at the, began writing a program on his to display images on a monochrome display. This program (at that time called Display) caught the attention of his brother John, an employee, who recommended that Thomas turn it into a full-fledged image editing program. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program.
Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken. Later that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and worked out a short-term deal with scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the program with a; a 'total of about 200 copies of Photoshop were shipped' this way.During this time, John traveled to and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at and Russell Brown, art director at. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988. While John worked on in California, Thomas remained in writing code. Photoshop 1.0 was released on February 19, 1990 for exclusively.
The Barneyscan version included advanced color editing features that were stripped from the first Adobe shipped version. The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1.0 was released, digital retouching on dedicated high-end systems (such as the ) cost around $300 an hour for basic photo retouching.Photoshop was initially only available on Macintosh. In 1993, Adobe chief architect Seetharaman Narayanan Photoshop to. The Windows port led to Photoshop reaching a wider audience as 's global reach expanded within the next few years. File format Photoshop document.psdimage/vnd.adobe.photoshop8BPS?noWebsitePhotoshop files have default file extension as.PSD, which stands for 'Photoshop Document.' A PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop.
These include layers with, transparency, text, and, and settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e.g.,.JPG or.GIF) that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes.Photoshop files sometimes have the file extension.PSB, which stands for 'Photoshop Big' (also known as 'large document format').
A PSB file extends the PSD file format, increasing the maximum height and width to 300,000 pixels and the length limit to around 4. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints (it is not close to a power of two, as is 30,000) but for ease of.
PSD and PSB formats are documented.Because of Photoshop's popularity, PSD files are widely used and supported to some extent by most competing software. The.PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe's other apps like, and.Plugins. Main article:Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called (or plug-ins). Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe's specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software.Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications.There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation.
The most popular plugins are the filter plugins (also known as a plugins), available under the Filter menu in Photoshop.Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:. Color correction plugins (Alien Skin Software, Nik Software, OnOne Software, Topaz Labs Software, The Plugin Site, etc.). Special effects plugins (Alien Skin Software, Auto FX Software, AV Bros., Flaming Pear Software, etc.).
3D effects plugins (Andromeda Software, Strata, etc.)Adobe Camera Raw (also known as ACR and Camera Raw) is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process so that the resultant images can be processed by Photoshop. It can also be used from within.Photoshop tools. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's. The may contain suggestions. ( July 2012)Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing; painting; measuring and navigation; selection; typing; and retouching. Some tools contain a small triangle in the bottom right of the toolbox icon.
These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. While newer versions of Photoshop are updated to include new tools and features, several recurring tools that exist in most versions are discussed below.Pen tool Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.Clone stamp tool The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush. The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image.
Shape tools Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines. These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc. To make vector graphics. In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants.Measuring and navigation The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use.
The hand tool navigates an image by moving it in any direction, and the zoom tool enlarges the part of an image that is clicked on, allowing for a closer view. Selection tools Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations.Cropping The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section. This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. Cropping allows enhancement of a photo's composition while decreasing the file size.
The 'crop' tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document. By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area.
Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped. The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased.
The 'crop' tool can alternatively be used to extend the canvas size by clicking and dragging outside the existing image borders.Slicing The 'slice' and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a once HTML and CSS are applied.
The slice select tool allows sliced sections of an image to be adjusted and shifted.Moving The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. Marquee The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical. An area that has been selected can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control. In contrast to the crop tool, the 'marquee' tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping.
The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line. The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option. Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as 'marching ants'. To set a specific size or ratio, the tool option bar provides these settings. Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height.
Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc. Should be made before cropping. To crop the selection, the user must go to image tab and select crop. Lasso The lasso tool is similar to the 'marquee' tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand.
There are three options for the 'lasso' tool – regular, polygonal, and magnetic. The regular 'lasso' tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The 'marching ants' will indicate if a selection has been made. The 'polygonal lasso' tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines. Unlike the regular 'lasso' tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape.
To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool. 'Magnetic lasso' tool is considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point. It detects by examining the color as the cursor move over the desired area. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the 'marching ants' once the selection has been closed.The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool.
The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over. By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image.
The 'marching ants' allow the user to know what is currently being selected. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection. Magic wand The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values. One click will select all neighboring pixels of similar value within a tolerance level set by the user. If the eyedropper tool is selected in the options bar, then the magic wand can determine the value needed to evaluate the pixels; this is based on the sample size setting in the eyedropper tool. This tool is inferior to the quick selection tool which works much the same but with much better results and more intuitive controls.
The user must decide what settings to use or if the image is right for this tool. Eraser The Eraser tool erases content based on the active layer.
If the user is on the text layer, then any text across which the tool is dragged will be erased. The eraser will convert the pixels to transparent, unless the background layer is selected.
The size and style of the eraser can be selected in the options bar. This tool is unique in that it can take the form of the paintbrush and pencil tools.
In addition to the straight eraser tool, there are two more available options – background eraser and magic eraser. The background eraser deletes any part of the image that is on the edge of an object. This tool is often used to extract objects from the background. The magic eraser tool deletes based on similar colored pixels. It is very similar to the magic wand tool. This tool is ideal for deleting areas with the same color or tone that contrasts with the rest of the image.
Video editing In Adobe CS5 Extended edition, video editing is comprehensive and efficient with a broad compatibility of video file formats such as MOV, AVI and MPEG-4 formats and easy workflow. Using simple combinations of keys video layers can easily be modified, with other features such as adding text and creating animations using single images. 3D extrusion With the Extended version of Photoshop CS5, 2D elements of an artwork can easily become three-dimensional with the click of a button. Extrusions of texts, an available library of materials for three-dimensional, and even wrapping two-dimensional images around 3D geometry. Mobile integration plugins have also been added to the most recent version of Photoshop where technologies such as the have integrated the software with different types of applications. Applications like the Adobe Eazel painting app allows the user to easily create paintings with their fingertips and use an array of different paint from dry to wet in order to create rich color blending. In October 2018, it was announced that the full Photoshop engine will be released for iPad next year.
The program will feature cloud syncing with other devices and a simpler interface than the desktop version. Camera raw With the Camera Raw plug-in, images can be processed without the use of, along with other image file formats such as JPEG, TIFF, or PNG. The plug-in allows users to remove noise without the side-effect of over-sharpening, add grain, and even perform post-crop. 3D printing tools From version 14.1, users can create and edit designs for. Artists can add color, adjust the shape or rotate the angles of imported models, or design original 3D models from scratch.
Color replacement tool The Color Replacement Tool allows the user to change the color, while maintaining the highlights and shadows of the original image, of pieces of the image. By selecting Brushs and right clicking, the Color Replacement Tool is the third option down. What is important to note with this tool is the foreground color.
The foreground color is what will be applied when painting along the chosen part of the image with the Color Replacement tool.Cultural impact. This section needs expansion with: more info on pre-CS versions. You can help. ( September 2019)Older versions Photoshop's naming scheme was initially based on version numbers, from version 0.07 (codename 'Bond'; double-oh-seven), through version 0.87 (codename 'Seurat' which was the first commercial version, sold as 'Barneyscan XP'), version 1.0 (February 1990) all the way to version 7.0.1. Smart Objects display filters without altering the original image (here on )CS3 improves on features from previous versions of Photoshop and introduces new tools. One of the most significant is the streamlined interface which allows increased performance, speed, and efficiency. There is also improved support for files which allow users to process images with higher speed and conversion quality.
CS3 supports over 150 RAW formats as well as,. Enhancements were made to the Black and White Conversion, Brightness and Contrast Adjustment and Vanishing Point Module tools. The Black and White adjustment option improves control over manual grayscale conversions with a dialog box similar to that of Channel Mixer. There is more control over print options and better management with. The Clone Source palette is introduced, adding more options to the clone stamp tool.
Other features include the nondestructive Smart Filters, optimizing graphics for mobile devices, Fill Light and Dust Busting tools. Compositing is assisted with Photoshop's new Quick Selection and Refine Edge tools and improved technology.CS3 Extended includes everything in CS3 and additional features.
There are tools for 3D graphic file formats, video enhancement and animation, and comprehensive image measurement and analysis tools with file support. The 3D graphic formats allow 3D content to be incorporated into 2D compositions.
As for video editing, CS3 supports layers and video formatting so users can edit video files per frame.CS3 and CS3 Extended were released in April 2007 to the United States and Canada. They were also made available through Adobe's online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers. Both CS3 and CS3 Extended are offered as either a stand-alone application or feature of Adobe Creative Suite. Both products are compatible with Intel-based Macs and, supporting. CS3 is the first release of Photoshop that will run natively on Macs with Intel processors: previous versions can only run through the translation layer, and will not run at all on Macs running or later.CS4 CS4 features smoother panning and zooming, allowing faster image editing at a high magnification.
The interface is more simplified with its tab-based interface making it cleaner to work with. Photoshop CS4 features a new 3D engine allowing the conversion of gradient maps to 3D objects, adding depth to layers and text, and getting print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine. It supports common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask Panels; Content-aware scaling ( ); Fluid Canvas Rotation and File display options. The Content-aware scaling allows users to intelligently size and scale images, and the Canvas Rotation tool makes it easier to rotate and edit images from any angle.Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which has the features of Adobe Photoshop CS4, plus capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, motion graphics, accurate image analysis and high-end film and video users. The faster 3D engine allows users to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes and animate 3D objects. As the successor to Photoshop CS3, Photoshop CS4 is the first edition of Photoshop on consumer computers for Windows. The color correction tool has also been improved significantly.CS4 and CS4 Extended were released on October 15, 2008.
They were also made available through Adobe's online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers. Both CS4 and CS4 Extended are offered as either a stand-alone application or feature of Adobe Creative Suite. Both products are compatible with Intel-based Mac OS X and, supporting. A 2D landscape designed in Adobe Photoshop CS5 ExtendedPhotoshop CS5 was launched on April 12, 2010. In a video posted on its official page, the development team revealed the new technologies under development, including three-dimensional brushes and warping tools.In May 2011, Adobe Creative Suite 5.5 (CS5.5) was released, with new versions of some of the applications.
Its version of Photoshop, 12.1, is identical to the concurrently released update for Photoshop CS5, version 12.0.4, except for support for the new subscription pricing that was introduced with CS5.5.CS5 introduces new tools such as the Content-Aware Fill, Refine Edge, Mixer Brush, Bristle Tips and Puppet Warp. The community also had a hand in the additions made to CS5 as 30 new features and improvements were included by request. These include automatic image straightening, the Rule-of-Thirds cropping tool, color pickup, and saving a 16-bit image as a. Another feature includes the Adobe Mini Bridge, which allows for efficient file browsing and management.CS5 Extended includes everything in CS5 plus features in 3D and video editing. A new materials library was added, providing more options such as Chrome, Glass, and Cork. The new Shadow Catcher tool can be used to further enhance 3D objects. For motion graphics, the tools can be applied to over more than one frame in a video sequence.CS5 and CS5 Extended were made available through Adobe's online store, Adobe Authorized Resellers and Adobe direct sales.
Both CS5 and CS5 Extended are offered as either a stand-alone application or a feature of Adobe Creative Suite 5. Both products are compatible with Intel-based Mac OS X and,. CS6 Photoshop CS6, released in May 2012, added new creative design tools and provided a redesigned interface with a focus on enhanced performance.
New features have been added to the Content-Aware tool such as the Content-Aware Patch and Content-Aware Move.Adobe Photoshop CS6 brought a suite of tools for video editing. Color and exposure adjustments, as well as layers, are among a few things that are featured in this new editor. Upon completion of editing, the user is presented with a handful of options of exporting into a few popular formats.CS6 brings the 'straighten' tool to Photoshop, where a user simply draws a line anywhere on an image, and the canvas will reorient itself so that the line drawn becomes horizontal, and adjusts the media accordingly.
This was created with the intention that users will draw a line parallel to a plane in the image, and reorient the image to that plane to more easily achieve certain perspectives.CS6 allows background saving, which means that while another document is compiling and archiving itself, it is possible to simultaneously edit an image. CS6 also features a customizable auto-save feature, preventing any work from being lost.With version 13.1.3, Adobe dropped support for (including ); thus, the last version that works on Windows XP is 13.0.1. Adobe also announced that CS6 will be the last suite sold with perpetual licenses in favor of the new Creative Cloud subscriptions, though they will continue to provide compatibility support as well as bug fixes and security updates as necessary.Starting January 9, 2017, CS6 is no longer available for purchase, making a Creative Cloud license the only purchase option going forward. CC Photoshop CC (14.0) was launched on June 18, 2013.
As the next major version after CS6, it is only available as part of a subscription. Major features in this version include new Smart Sharpen, Intelligent Upsampling, and Camera Shake Reduction for reducing blur caused by camera shake. Editable Rounded Rectangles and an update to Adobe Camera Raw (8.0) were also included.Since the initial launch, Adobe has released two additional feature-bearing updates.
The first, version 14.1, was launched on September 9, 2013. The major features in this version were Adobe Generator, a Node.js-based platform for creating plug-ins for Photoshop. Photoshop 14.1 shipped with two plug-ins, one to automatically generate image assets based on an extension in the layer name, and another to automatically generate assets for Adobe Edge Reflow.Version 14.2 was released on January 15, 2014. Major features include Perspective Warp, Linked Smart Objects, and 3D Printing support. CC 2014 Photoshop CC 2014 (15.0) was released on June 18, 2014. CC 2014 features improvements to content-aware tools, two new blur tools (spin blur and path blur) and a new focus mask feature that enables the user to select parts of an image based on whether they are in focus or not. Other minor improvements have been made, including speed increases for certain tasks.
CC 2015 Photoshop CC 2015 was released on June 15, 2015. Adobe added various creative features including Adobe Stock, which is a library of custom stock images.
It also includes and have the ability to have more than one layer style. For example, in the older versions of Photoshop, only one shadow could be used for a layer but in CC 2015, up to ten are available. Other minor features like Export As, which is a form of the Save For Web in CC 2014 were also added. The updated UI as of November 30, 2015 delivers a cleaner and more consistent look throughout Photoshop, and the user can quickly perform common tasks using a new set of gestures on touch-enabled devices like Microsoft Surface Pro. CC 2015 also marks the 25th anniversary of Photoshop. CC 2017 Photoshop CC 2017 was released on November 2, 2016.
It introduced a new template selector when creating new documents, the ability to search for tools, panels and help articles for Photoshop, support for SVG OpenType fonts and other small improvements. In December 2016, a minor update was released to include support for the MacBook Pro Touch Bar.CC 2018 Photoshop CC 2018 was released on October 18, 2017. It featured an overhaul to the brush organization system, allowing for more properties (such as color and opacity) to be saved per-brush and for brushes to be categorized in folders and sub-folders. It also added brush stroke smoothing, and over 1000 brushes created by (following Adobe's acquisition of his website, KyleBrush.com ). A Curvature Pen tool, similar to the one in, was added, allowing for faster creation of paths. Other additions were Lightroom Photo access, Variable font support, select subject, copy-paste layers, enhanced tooltips, 360 panorama and support, PNG compression, increased maximum zoom level, symmetry mode, algorithm improvements to Face-aware and selection tools, color and luminance range masking, improved image resizing, and performance improvements to file opening, filters, and brush strokes. CC 2019 Photoshop CC 2019 was released on October 15, 2018.
Beginning with Photoshop CC 2019 (version 20.0), the 32-bit version of Windows is no longer supported. This version Introduced a new tool called Frame Tool to create placeholder frames for images. It also added multiple undo mode, auto-commitment, prevent accidental panel moves with lock work-space. Live blend mode previews are added, allowing for faster scrolling over different blend mode options in the layers panel. Other additions were Color Wheel, Transform proportionally without Shift key, Distribute spacing like in Illustrator, ability to see longer layer names, match font with Japanese fonts, flip document view, scale UI to font, reference point hidden by default, new compositing engine, which provides a more modern compositing architecture is added which is easier to optimize on all platforms.Photoshop Mix. This section needs expansion.
You can help. ( June 2012)Photoshop Mix is an application designed as a replacement for Photoshop Touch specifically for tablets and touchscreen devices. It includes many of the features of the personal computer version, including layers, selection tools, adjustments, and filters. Edited files could be synced with Adobe Creative Cloud.
Photoshop Mix is available on. It has 2 siblings, Photoshop Fix (a Photo Correction app), and Photoshop Sketch (a light drawing tool). All require iOS 9.0 or later. Android versions could be installed on any Android handset (4.0 and up) and tablets (3.1 and up). See also. Retrieved January 10, 2019. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
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(2011). Computational Culture (1).
(asks: 'How does media authoring software shape the media being created, making some design choices seem natural and easy to execute, while hiding other design possibilities?' )External links.